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EPI LIFE COACH video gallery

This is where you can find interesting and informative material in the form of videos.

epi life coach video archive

In this section we have listed our own informative videos.
All the videos here are for information purpose only.

Epi Life Coach Official Presentation

Length: 1:32 minutes  
Date: Published on 29 Aug 2017
Excerpt: Epi Life Coach provides nutritional services to anyone who would like to improve their lifestyle by understanding the importance of food and general nutrition.

Optimize Training Elite Report

Length: 2:05 minutes  
Date: Published on 2 Sep 2017
Excerpt: Optimize Reports contains highly relevant environmental factors based on personal epigenetics from hair follicles. The reports are generated in less than 15 minutes and provide instant access to diet, nutrition and lifestyle choices information.

Smart Card V2

Length: 2:00 minutes  
Date: Published on 18 Jul 2017
Excerpt: After many years of research in Germany using high frequency infusion techniques, the Smart Card was developed. The Smart Card was built in with spectrum coil to allow natural alpha frequencies to ‘spin counter clockwise’, which closely reflects the Mother Earth’s original frequencies. 

EPI LIFE COACH articles

Betaine is a derivative of the nutrient choline; in other words, choline is a “precursor” to betaine and must be present for betaine to be synthesized in the human body.
YEAR 2017
DATE Friday, March 03
TOPIC Vitamins
AUTHOR Dr. Carlos Orozco (BSc, MSc, ND, MD, PhD, FPAMS)

Betaine is a derivative of the nutrient choline; in other words, choline is a “precursor” to betaine and must be present for betaine to be synthesized in the human body. Betaine is created by choline in combination with three methyl radicals and glycine, an aminoacid. Therefore, Betaine is known as trimethylglycine (TMG) and the human body is able to synthesized it. It’s involved in liver function, cellular reproduction, and helping make carnitine. It also helps the body metabolize an amino acid called homocysteine.
Just like some B vitamins, including folate andvitamin B12, betaine is considered to be a “methyl donor.” This means it aids in liver function, detoxification and cellular functioning within the body. It’s most crucial role is to help the body process fats.

Probably the most extensively researched benefit of betaine is its use to convert homocysteine in the blood to methionine. Homocysteine is an amino acid that is produced by the body naturally. Amino acids are the building blocks of all the proteins in the body. Although amino acids are critical compounds needed for many body functions, studies show that high levels of the amino acid homocysteine can be harmful to blood vessels, potentially leading to the development of plaque buildup and the condition called atherosclerosis (clogged arteries).(1) (2)

Betaine Deficiency
A betaine deficiency is not thought to be common in western nations, mostly because betaine is present in high amounts in wheat products, which are a staple in most people’s diets. Although it’s not directly due to low betaine intake, diets low in betaine may contribute to high homocysteine in the blood. High homocysteine levels in the blood may be elevated for many reasons, mainly epigeneticsdue to environmental factors, diet and life style.

The biggest threat to consuming low betaine levels is experiencing symptoms related to high homocysteine in the blood. This is seen most often in either older populations above 50, those who have suffered from alcoholism, or in children who have genetic conditions that lead to high homocysteine. Although this condition is rare, severely elevated levels of homocysteine can cause developmental delay, osteoporosis (thin bones), visual abnormalities, formation of blood clots, and narrowing and hardening of blood vessels. (3)

References:

  1. Alfthan G, Tapani K, Nissinen K, et al. (2004) The effect of low doses of betaine on plasma homocysteine in healthy volunteers. Br J Nutr.92:665-669.
  2. Atkinson W, Elmslie J, Lever M, Chambers ST, George PM (2008). Dietary and supplementary betaine: acute effects on plasma betaine and homocysteine concentrations under standard and postmethionine load conditions in healthy male subjects. Am J ClinNutr87(3):577-585.
  3. Angulo P, Lindor KD. Treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver: present and emerging therapies. Semin Liver Dis. 2001;21(1):81-88.
  4. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Badkhsh S, Tuma DJ. The effect of betaine in reversing alcoholic steatosis. Alcohol ClinExp Res. 1997;21(6):1100-1102.
  5. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Tuma DJ. (1995) Betaine, ethanol, and the liver: a review. Alcohol. 1996; 13(4): 395-398.
  6. Boushey CJ, et al. A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. Probable benefits of increasing folic acid intakes. JAMA. Oct 4,; 274(13): 1049-1057.
  7. Eikelboom JW, Lonn E, Genest J, Hankey G, Yusuf S. Homocyst(e)ine and cardiovascular disease: a critical review of the epidemiologic evidence. Ann Intern Med. 1999;131:363-375.
  8. Hanje AJ, Fortune B, Song M, Hill D, McClain C. The use of selected nutrition supplements and complementary and alternative medicine in liver disease. NutrClinPract. 2006 Jun;21(3):255-272. Review.

EPI LIFE COACH articles

Vitamin C is required for the synthesis of collagen, an important structural component of blood vessels, tendons, ligaments, and bone. Vitamin C also plays an important role in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter, norepinephrine.
YEAR 2017
DATE Friday, March 03
TOPIC Vitamin
AUTHOR Dr. Carlos Orozco (BSc, MSc, ND, MD, PhD, FPAMS)

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin. Unlike most mammals, humans do not have the ability to make their own vitamin C. Therefore, we must obtain vitamin C through our diet.

Biological Function
Vitamin C is required for the synthesis of collagen, an important structural component of blood vessels, tendons, ligaments, and bone. Vitamin C also plays an important role in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter, norepinephrine. Neurotransmitters are critical to brain function and are known to affect mood. In addition, vitamin C is required for the synthesis of carnitine, a small molecule that is essential for the transport of fat to cellular organelles called mitochondria, for conversion to energy (1). Recent research also suggests that vitamin C is involved in the metabolism of cholesterol to bile acids, which may have implications for blood cholesterol levels and the incidence of gallstones (2).
Vitamin C is also a highly effective antioxidant. Even in small amounts vitamin C can protect indispensable molecules in the body, such as proteins, lipids (fats), carbohydrates, and nucleic acids (DNA RNA) from damage by free radicals and reactive oxygen species that can be generated during normal metabolism as well as through exposure to toxins and
pollutants (e.g. smoking). Vitamin C may also be able to regenerate other antioxidants such as vitamin E (1).

Signs and Symptoms of Deficiency
Scurvy
Severe vitamin C deficiency has been known for many centuries as the potentially fatal disease, scurvy. By the late 1700’s the British navy was aware that scurvy could be cured by eating oranges or lemons, even though vitamin C would not be isolated until the early 1930’s. Symptoms of scurvy include bleeding and bruising easily, hair and tooth loss, joint pain and swelling. Such symptoms appear to be related to the weakening of blood vessels, connective tissue, and bone, which contain collagen. Early symptoms of scurvy such as fatigue may result from diminished levels of carnitine, needed to derive energy from fat, or decreased synthesis of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (see Function). Scurvy is rare in developed countries because it can be prevented by as little as 10 mg of vitamin C daily (2). However, recent cases have occurred in children and the elderly on very restricted diets (4,5).

References:

  1. Brody T. Nutritional Biochemistry. 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press; 1999.
  2. Shane B. Folic acid, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6. In: Stipanuk M, ed. Biochemical and Physiological Aspects of Human Nutrition. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co.; 2000:483-518.
  3. Baik HW, Russell RM. Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly. Annu Rev Nutr. 1999;19:357-377. (PubMed).
  4. Herbert V. Vitamin B-12. In: Ziegler EE, Filer LJ, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 7th ed. WashingtonD.C.: ILSI Press; 1996:191-205.
  5. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Vitamin B12. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B-6, Vitamin B-12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline.
  6. WashingtonD.C.: NationalAcademy Press; 1998:306-356. (National Academy Press).
  7. Ho C, Kauwell GP, Bailey LB. Practitioners’ guide to meeting the vitamin B-12 recommended dietary allowance for people aged 51 years and older. J Am Diet Assoc. 1999;99(6):725-727. (PubMed).
  8. Weir DG, Scott JM. Vitamin B-12 “Cobalamin”. In: Shils M, ed. Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1999:447-458.
  9. Homocysteine Lowering Trialists’ Collaboration. Lowering blood homocysteine with folic acid based supplements: meta-analysis of randomised trials. Homocysteine Lowering Trialists’ Collaboration. BMJ. 1998;316(7135):894-898. (PubMed).
  10. Quinlivan EP, McPartlin J, McNulty H, et al. Importance of both folic acid and vitamin B12 in reduction of risk of vascular disease. Lancet. 2002;359(9302):227-228. (PubMed).
  11. Stabler SP, Lindenbaum J, Allen RH. Vitamin B-12 deficiency in the elderly: current dilemmas. Am J ClinNutr. 1997;66(4):741-749. (PubMed).
  12. Fenech M. Micronucleus frequency in human lymphocytes is related to plasma vitamin B12 and homocysteine. Mutat Res. 1999;428(1-2):299-304. (PubMed).
  13. Wu K, Helzlsouer KJ, Comstock GW, Hoffman SC, Nadeau MR, Selhub J. A prospective study on folate, B12, and pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (B6) and breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1999;8(3):209-217. (PubMed).
  14. Eskes TK. Open or closed? A world of difference: a history of homocysteine research. Nutr Rev. 1998;56(8):236-244. (PubMed).
  15. Mills JL, Scott JM, Kirke PN, et al. Homocysteine and neural tube defects. J Nutr. 1996;126(3):756S-760S. (PubMed).

EPI LIFE COACH articles

This vitamin must be hydrolyzed from protein in order to be active. Hydrolysis occurs in the stomach by gastric acids or the intestines by trypsin digestion following consumption of animal meat.
YEAR 2017
DATE Friday, March 03
TOPIC Vitamins
AUTHOR Dr. Carlos Orozco (BSc, MSc, ND, MD, PhD, FPAMS)

Cobalamin is more commonly known as vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 is composed of a complex tetrapyrrol ring structure (corrin ring) and a cobalt ion in the center. Vitamin B12 is synthesized exclusively by microorganisms and is found in the liver of animals bound to protein as methycobalamin or 5′-deoxyadenosylcobalamin.

Ciano covalamine
The vitamin must be hydrolyzed from protein in order to be active. Hydrolysis occurs in the stomach by gastric acids or the intestines by trypsin digestion following consumption of animal meat. The vitamin is then bound by intrinsic factor, a protein secreted by parietal cells of the stomach, and carried to the ileum where it is absorbed. Following absorption the vitamin is transported to the liver in the blood bound to transcobalamin II.

Biological Function of Vitamin B12
Vitamin B12 plays a major role in the biosynthesis of nucleic acids, DNA, protein and blood cells, the maintenance of the bone marrow, the gut mucosa, epithelial cells and lipids, the myelination of nerve and brain fibers.

Vitamin B12 and Homocysteine Metabolism S-adenosylhomocysteine is formed during S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methylation reactions, and the hydrolysis of S-adenosylhomocysteine results in homocysteine. Homocysteine may be remethylated to form methionine by a folate-dependent reaction that is catalyzed by methionine synthase, a vitamin B12-dependent enzyme. Alternately, homocysteine may be metabolized to cysteine in reactions catalyzed by two vitamin B6-dependent enzymes.

Signs, symptoms, and health problems associated with vitamin B12 deficiency
Deficiency of vitamin B12 occurs as a result of an inability to absorb vitamin B12 from food and also occurs in strict vegetarians who do not consume any foods that come from animals [9]. As a general rule, most individuals who develop a vitamin B12 deficiency have an underlying stomach or intestinal disorder that limits the absorption of vitamin B12 [10]. Sometimes the only symptom of these intestinal disorders is subtly reduced cognitive function resulting from early vitamin B12 deficiency. Anemia and dementia follow later [1,11].

Characteristic signs and symptoms include anemia, fatigue, weakness, constipation, loss of appetite, and weight loss [1,3,12].
Deficiency also can lead to neurological changes such as numbness and tingling in the hands and feet [7,13].
Additional symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency are difficulty in maintaining balance, depression, confusion, dementia, poor memory, and soreness of the mouth or tongue [14].
Signs of vitamin B12 deficiency in infancy include failure to thrive, movement disorders, delayed development, and megaloblasticanemia (15).

EPI LIFE COACH articles

Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin, generally classified as a B-complex vitamin. After the initial discovery of biotin, nearly forty years of research were required to establish it as a vitamin.
YEAR 2017
DATE Friday, March 03
TOPIC Vitamins
AUTHOR Dr. Carlos Orozco (BSc, MSc, ND, MD, PhD, FPAMS)

Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin, generally classified as a B-complex vitamin. After the initial discovery of biotin, nearly forty years of research were required to establish it as a vitamin (1). Biotin is required by all organisms but can only be synthesized by bacteria, yeasts, molds, algae, and some plant species (2).

Biological Function
In its physiologically active form biotin is attached at the active site of four important enzymes, known as carboxylases (3). Each carboxylase catalyzes an essential metabolic reaction.

Enzyme cofactor
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes the binding of bicarbonate to acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA. Malonyl-CoA is required for the synthesis of fatty acids.
Pyruvate carboxylase is a critical enzyme in gluconeogenesis, the formation of glucose from sources other than carbohydrates, for example, amino acids and fats.
Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxyla se catalyzes an essential step in the metabolism of leucine, an indispensable (essential) amino acid.
Propionyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes essential steps in the metabolism of amino acids, cholesterol, and odd chain fatty acids (fatty acids with an odd number of carbon molecules) (4).

Histone biotinylation
Histones are proteins that bind to DNA and package it into compact structures to form chromosomes. The compact packaging of DNA must be relaxed somewhat for DNA replication and transcription to occur. Modification of histones through the attachment of acetyl or methyl groups (acetylation or methylation) has been shown to affect the structure of histones, thereby affecting replication and transcription of DNA. The attachment of biotin to another molecule, such as a protein, is known as “biotinylation”. The enzyme biotinidase has recently been shown to catalyze the biotinylation of histones, suggesting that biotin may play a role in DNA replication and transcription (5,6).

Signs and Symptoms of Deficiency
Although biotin deficiency is very rare, the human requirement for dietary biotin has been demonstrated in two different situations: prolonged intravenous feeding without biotin supplementation and consumption of raw egg white for a prolonged period (many weeks to years). Avidin is a protein found in egg white, which binds biotin and prevents its absorption. Cooking egg white denatures avidin, rendering it susceptible to digestion, and unable to prevent the absorption of dietary biotin (7).

Symptoms of overt biotin deficiency include hair loss and a scaly red rash around the eyes, nose, mouth, and genital area. Neurologic symptoms in adults have included depression, lethargy, hallucination, and numbness and tingling of the extremities. The characteristic facial rash, together with an unusual facial fat distribution, have been termed the “biotin deficient face” by some experts (7). Individuals with hereditary disorders of biotin metabolism resulting in functional biotin deficiency have evidence of impaired immune system function, including increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections (8).

References:

  1. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Biotin. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B-6, Vitamin B-12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: NationalAcademy Press; 1998:374-389. (National Academy Press).
  2. Mock DM. Biotin. In: Ziegler EE, Filer LJ, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 7th ed. WashingtonD.C.: ILSI Press; 1996:220-236.
  3. Chapman-Smith A, Cronan JE, Jr. Molecular biology of biotin attachment to proteins. J Nutr. 1999;129(2S Suppl):477S-484S. (PubMed).
  4. Zempleni J, Mock DM. Biotin biochemistry and human requirements. 1999; volume 10: pages 128-138. J Nutr. Biochem. 1999;10:128-138.
  5. Hymes J, Wolf B. Human biotinidase isn’t just for recycling biotin. J Nutr. 1999;129(2S Suppl):485S-489S. (PubMed).
  6. Zempleni J, Mock DM. Marginal biotin deficiency is teratogenic. ProcSocExpBiol Med. 2000;223(1):14-21. (PubMed).
  7. Mock DM. Biotin. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1999:459-466.
  8. Baumgartner ER, Suormala T. Inherited defects of biotin metabolism. Biofactors. 1999;10(2-3):287-290.

EPI LIFE COACH articles

Folate coenzymes act as acceptors and donors of one-carbon units in a variety of reactions critical to the metabolism of nucleic acids and amino acids.
YEAR 2017
DATE Friday, March 03
TOPIC Vitamins
AUTHOR Dr. Carlos Orozco (BSc, MSc, ND, MD, PhD, FPAMS)

Biological Function of Folic Acid
One-carbon metabolism
The only function of folate coenzymes in the body appears to be mediating the transfer of one-carbon units (2). Folate coenzymes act as acceptors and donors of one-carbon units in a variety of reactions critical to the metabolism of nucleic acids and amino acids (3).

Nucleic acid metabolism
Folate coenzymes play a vital role in DNA metabolism through two different pathways.1) The synthesis of DNA from its precursors is dependent on folate coenzymes. 2) A folate coenzyme is required for the synthesis of methionine, and methionine is required for the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). SAM is a methyl group (one-carbon unit) donor used in many biological methylation reactions, including the methylation of a number of sites within DNA and RNA. Methylation of DNA may be important in cancer prevention.

Amino acid metabolism
Folate coenzymes are required for the metabolism of several important amino acids. The synthesis of methionine from homocysteine requires a folate coenzyme as well as a vitamin B12 dependent enzyme. Thus, folate deficiency can result in decreased synthesis of methionine and a build up of homocysteine. Increased levels of homocysteine may be a risk factor for heart disease, as well as several other chronic diseases.

Signs and Symptoms of Deficiency
Folate deficiency occurs in a number of situations. For example, low dietary intake and diminished absorption, as in alcoholism, can result in a decreased supply of folate. Certain conditions like pregnancy or cancer result in increased rates of cell division and metabolism, leading to an increase in the body’s demand for folate (5). Several medications may also contribute to deficiency.

References:

  1. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Folic Acid. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B-6, Vitamin B-12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, D.C.: NationalAcademy Press; 1998:193-305. (National Academy Press).
  2. Choi SW, Mason JB. Folate and carcinogenesis: an integrated scheme. J Nutr. 2000;130(2):129-132. (PubMed).
  3. Bailey LB, Gregory JF, 3rd. Folate metabolism and requirements. J Nutr. 1999;129(4):779-782. (PubMed).
  4. Gerhard GT, Duell PB. Homocysteine and atherosclerosis. CurrOpinLipidol. 1999;10(5):417-428. (PubMed).
  5. Herbert V. Folic acid. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore:

EPI LIFE COACH articles

The terms folic acid and folate are often used interchangeably for this water-soluble B-complex vitamin.
YEAR 2017
DATE Friday, March 03
TOPIC Vitamins
AUTHOR Dr. Carlos Orozco (BSc, MSc, ND, MD, PhD, FPAMS)

The terms folic acid and folate are often used interchangeably for this water-soluble B-complex vitamin. Folic acid, the most stable form, occurs rarely in foods or the human body, but is the form most often used in vitamin supplements and fortified foods. Naturally occurring folates exist in many chemical forms. Folates are found in foods as well as in metabolically active forms, in the human body (1). In the following discussion forms found in food or the body will be referred to as “folates”, while the form found in supplements or fortified foods will be referred to as “folic acid”.