Obesity being linked to Epigenetics

Scientists Have Observed Epigenetic Memories Being Passed Down For 14 Generations The past lives on.
obesity food
YEAR 2017
DATE Friday, April 21
TOPIC Epigenetics
AUTHOR Signe Dean

The most important set of genetic instructions we all get comes from our DNA, passed down through generations. But the environment we live in can make genetic changes, too.
Researchers have now discovered that these kinds of environmental genetic changes can be passed down for a whopping 14 generations in an animal – the largest span ever observed in a creature, in this case being a dynasty of C. elegans nematodes (roundworms).

To study how long the environment can leave a mark on genetic expression, a team led by scientists from the European Molecular Biology Organisation (EMBO) in Spain took genetically engineered nematode worms that carry a transgene for a fluorescent protein. When activated, this gene made the worms glow under ultraviolet light.
Then, they switched things up for the nematodes by changing the temperature of their containers. When the team kept nematodes at 20° Celsius (68° F), they measured low activity of the transgene – which meant the worms hardly glowed at all.
But by moving the worms to a warmer climate of 25° C (77° F), they suddenly lit up like little wormy Christmas trees, which meant the fluorescence gene had become much more active.
Their tropical vacation didn’t last long, however. The worms were moved back to cooler temperatures to see what would happen to the activity of the fluorescence gene.
Surprisingly, they continued to glow brightly, suggesting they were retaining an ‘environmental memory’ of the warmer climate – and that the transgene was still highly active.
Furthermore, that memory was passed onto their offspring for seven brightly-glowing generations, none of whom had experienced the warmer temperatures. The baby worms inherited this epigenetic change through both eggs and sperm.

The team pushed the results even further – when they kept five generations of nematodes at 25° C (77° F) and then banished their offspring to colder temperatures, the worms continued to have higher transgene activity for an unprecedented 14 generations.
That’s the longest scientists have ever observed the passing-down of an environmentally induced genetic change. Usually, environmental changes to genetic expression only last a few generations.
“We don’t know exactly why this happens, but it might be a form of biological forward-planning,” says one of the team, Adam Klosin from EMBO and Pompeu Fabra University, Spain.
“Worms are very short-lived, so perhaps they are transmitting memories of past conditions to help their descendants predict what their environment might be like in the future,” adds co-researcher Tanya Vavouri from the Josep Carreras Leukaemia Research Institute in Spain.
There’s a reason why scientists turn to C. elegans as a model organism – after all, those 14 generations would only take roughly 50 days to develop, but can still give us important clues on how environmental genetic change is passed down in other animals, including humans.
There are many examples of this phenomenon in worms and mice, but the study of environmental epigenetic inheritance in humans is a hotly debated topic, and there’s still a lot we don’t know.

“Inherited effects in humans are difficult to measure due to the long generation times and difficulty with accurate record keeping,” states one recent review of epigenetic inheritance.
But some research suggests that events in our lives can indeed affect the development of our children and perhaps even grandchildren – all without changing the DNA.
For example, studies have shown that both the children and grandchildren of women who survived the Dutch famine of 1944-45 were found to have increased glucose intolerance in adulthood.
Other researchers have found that the descendants of Holocaust survivors have lower levels of the hormone cortisol, which helps your body bounce back after trauma.
The latest study on nematodes is an important step towards understanding more about our own epigenetic inheritance – especially because it serves as a remarkable demonstration of how long-lasting these inter-generational effects may be.
The findings were published in Science.


Epigenetics and Gene Expression : a 21st century scientific revolution

t is likely that everybody has heard of genetics, the study of the genes that determine our inherited traits, but perhaps not everybody is familiar with epigenetics.
epigenetic studies
YEAR 2017
DATE Wednesday May 10
TOPIC Epigenetics
AUTHOR Dr. Dániel Zahemszky

Rather than concerning genes, epigenetics studies what is happening beyond them, with ‘epi’ literally translating to ‘on top of ’ in Greek. This means that although every one of our cells contain the exact same genetic material, not all of it is expressed in all cells. This is why nerve cells are long and have a branched structure and muscle cells contain muscle fibers. Epigenetics is the study of how and why genes are switched on oroff, leading to different gene expression patterns between cells and organs.
However, these patterns are not fixed, but alterable in response to changes in circumstances. There are many interesting cases in wild animals, where this alteration in fact acts in favour of the given animal leading to adaptation to the environment.It is widely known, for example, that in many reptiles and amphibians sex is determined by external temperature. In turtles, this is due to a certain hormone that is able to convert the male sex hormone testosterone into the female sex hormone oestrogen. It also happens to be temperature sensitive; that is, at high temperature it gets activated and by producing oestrogen switches on genes involved in ovary formation. On the other hand, at low temperatures the hormone doesn’t work, and leaves testosterone which leads to testes formation.

There are many interesting cases in wild animals, where this alteration in fact acts in favour of the given animal leading to adaptation to the environment.It is widely known, for example, that in many reptiles and amphibians sex is determined by external temperature. In turtles, this is due to a certain hormone that is able to convert the male sex hormone testosterone into the female sex hormone oestrogen. It also happens to be temperature sensitive; that is, at high temperature it gets activated and by producing oestrogen switches on genes involved in ovary formation. On the other hand, at low temperatures the hormone doesn’t work, and leaves testosterone which leads to testes formation.
Although this might seem strange to us, it is not as strange as the case of a Caribbean fish species, the blue-headed wrasse. This animal determines its sex depending on whether it encounters a male individual of its own species. If it does, then it becomes female and joins the ‘harem’ of that male, otherwise it becomes male. When the male of this group eventually dies, the largest female grows testes and replaces him.
We shouldn’t forget, however, that these transformations are not voluntary from the fish, but due to a range of biochemical interaction ending in the change of gene expression. The last example is taken from another group of animals: insects. The desert locust lives in Africa and can cause billions of dollars of damage in agriculture, spanning many countries during upsurgence, such as the ones written in the Bible and the Qur’an. These outbreaks, however, cannot occur at any time; the insects are normally short-winged and solitary. It is the increase in population density (when individuals can sense that they are too crowded), that causes a change in gene expression and leads to the emergence of longer, bright-coloured wings and migratory behaviour.
Apart from curious cases from wildlife, there is increasing evidence showing that epigenetics has a role in human diseases. A notable example of these is cancer, even though it has long been thought to be a condition of genetic origin.
Cancers often develop when a cell gains advantage in growth and reproduces itself very rapidly, leading to the formation of a tumor. Some researchers suggest that this advantage can arise not only from a gene mutation, but also from a healthy set of genes being turned on and off in an unhealthy pattern. Perhaps this turning on and off is mediated by environmental factors, for example molecules that we take in through eating which directly affect gene expression. Although all the genetic material (the genome) of the human body has been decoded, what happens to these genes in the process of epigenetic change is still something to uncover.
Epigenetic research is therefore one of the major focuses of science in the 21st century, having the potential to fight the big killers of our society, as well as contributing to conservation and producing more productive agricultural systems.


The Body Give Us Alert Signs Every Day

"THE BODY GIVES US ALERT SIGNS EVERY DAY" She has just released the book 'Crónicas de Bem Viver', where she synthesizes years of knowledge and practice in the field of naturopathy.
Dr. Paula Mouta
YEAR  2017
DATE  Wednesday, February 15
TOPIC  Epigenetics
AUTHOR  Dr. Paula Mouta

She has just released the book ‘Crónicas de Bem Viver’, where she synthesizes years of knowledge and practice in the field of naturopathy. She believes in the capacity of man to regenerate and treat himself. Just read the signs that the body gives us. Behind, there are concepts like epigenetics or nutraceutical foods.

What motivated you to write this book?

This book is the sum of the chronicles written over a year to three online platforms Through it, I can take each reader a healthier view of life. Show that it’s never too late to move. There are no limits when we want to change something in ourselves. Just start.

Luis Osório, who wrote my preface, was able to define this book very well. “It’s a book that believes in an idea of happiness. Who believes in the capacity of human beings to regenerate. Who believes more in the talent of each one to understand the essential, to take care of, to prevent and, in a sense, to love … The book, this book, is water. And also thirst for knowledge. And that’s why it matters. “

In his chronicles, he talks a lot about epigenetics. Can you describe what it means for our lives?

Epigenetics is defined as genome modifications that are inherited by the next generations but do not alter the DNA sequence. External influences force our metabolism to generate changes and adaptations to survive, something that comes from the fact that man is recognized as a human in prehistory. To these changes, we call epigenetic factors. That is why I always affirm that health is a state of consciousness, social, cultural, emotional and personal.

What does this mean?

It means that a collective of information shapes our way of being in life. For example, if our children in elementary school begin to get a sense of good living habits, we can reduce obesity, which has already become a public scourge recognized by WHO.

This is the best example of how epigenetic influences modify the new generations. If notions of regular exercise habits, nutraceutical foods, consumed at least four times a week, good reading habits and daily practices of human values are introduced in schools. These children will be healthier adults with a more balanced awareness, social, cultural, emotional and personal.

If you want to look at another, broader view, think about the health of migrant peoples. All those we are receiving and with whom we mix every day. In them there is other genetic information, which when changing geographic region will be adapted to all new information received in the host country. And we also receive influences from them, we reap new eating habits, which for either and both generate metabolic conflicts and sometimes disharmonies dangerous, as is the case of the consumption of sushi, for which our metabolism is not prepared. All these changes will be visible in the near future. We will have other types of diseases.

And the body usually gives us signals, right? How can we be attentive to being able to read and act in a timely manner in health promotion?

Every day the body gives us warning signals, just like the alarm clock we put in to wake us up in the morning. Just listen and listen … if a pain, a symptom persists for more than three days, I advise you to pay attention to that signal. This means that something is in disharmony and after seven days the disease may already be installed.


Obesity and Epigenetics

Cell welfare, a change that comes from within! Epigenetics is defined as modifications of the genome that are inherited by the next generations but do not alter the DNA sequence.
Dr. Paula Mouta
YEAR  2017
DATE  Wednesday, May 24
TOPIC  Epigenetics
AUTHOR  Dr. Paula Mouta

Cell welfare, a change that comes from within!
Epigenetics is defined as modifications of the genome that are inherited by the next generations but do not alter the DNA sequence.
Obesity is a metabolic condition in which there is an excess accumulation of adipose tissue to the point of having a negative impact on health, which leads to a reduction in life expectancy and an increase in health problems.

In January 2016, it was announced to the public through the “Published News Medical Life Sciences” newspaper in the United States, that scientists discovered the epigenetic switch linked to obesity.
Also, a study published by Andrew Pospisilik on January 28, 2016, in the journal “Cell” suggests that a person’s predisposition for obesity is at least partially determined by the epigenetic regulation.
The study shows that the phenotypes or diseases may have a strong switch with epigenetic origin.
Epigenetic modifications can be inherited at the time of cell division (mitosis) and will have a profound effect on the biology of the organism, defining different phenotypes (development and behavior).
Last year, the WHO estimated that more than 600 million people in the world are obese.
For example, it has been proven that adiposity is controlled by a part of our DNA and modified by our environment.
Most people see body fat as relatively harmless and just something we want to ban for aesthetic reasons.
The epigenetic partners allied to our DNA are nutraceutical foods, that is, foods that will act as medicines, correcting deficiencies and nutritional deficiencies.
If you do not know how your metabolic state is, you will not know how to prevent and make use of this resource so handy, which is food.
But when the disharmony is already installed in us, sometimes some foods become aggressors as well.
So it is important, every three months to do an Epigenetic evaluation test, so that you can realign your metabolism, just as your car needs revision every 10,000 km, also the human body needs to re-evaluate the style of life.
Science is increasingly striving to ease the way, by creating resources that allow us to re-evaluate our epigenetic state.
For example, there is a technology that works through algorithm evaluators, created in Germany called S-Drive System, which evaluates how we are, using only a few strands of live hair, containing the follicle.
It is truly gratifying to be able to know so much about our state of health, using painless, rapid response and relatively accessible to all people.
In Portuguese, we can translate to the epigenetic drive system.
That is, the master algorithm is the key that opens all the ports and that is able to decipher us effectively, accurately and without errors. In our body this algorithm is food.
Through the hair follicle, we can have all the information about our epigenetic state.
In the hair are contained the enzymes that play an important role in the neuroendocrine regulation of our body and in the constitution of mineral elements.
When we evaluate a few hair strands through a marker algorithms, we can get information on 9 metabolic fields, which allow us to not only change living habits but also to shape functional and personalized nutrition.
Therefore hair can be considered as a biomarker information of our metabolic state.
The evaluation technology used by the S-Drive system is considered scientifically, being a resource based on the concept of epigenetic evaluation.
Hair takes up to 80 days to reach the surface, allowing you to store information that emanates from the micro and the macro environment of each being.
Being fat or thin no longer depends only on what you eat, but above all on how we are able to manage all the influences that modify us metabolically.
Epigenetics emerges as a new frontier to be achieved. The understanding of its mechanisms beyond those already known by molecular genetics allows us to create models to evaluate and structure a preventive solution, focused on the individual and unique biotype of each human being.
All these resources associated with a way of treating the human being in a complete vision of total reorganization “In Vivo”, that which comes from within.
This is the path of life made with longevity and cellular well-being.


Why Your DNA Isn't Your Destiny

The new field of epigenetics is showing how your environment and your choices can influence your genetic code — and that of your kids
time cover
YEAR  2010
DATE  Tuesday, January 19
TOPIC  Epigenetics
AUTHOR  Dr. John Cloud

The remote, snow-swept expanses of northern Sweden are an unlikely place to begin a story about cutting-edge genetic science. The kingdom’s northernmost county, Norrbotten, is nearly free of human life; an average of just six people live in each square mile. And yet this tiny population can reveal a lot about how genes work in our everyday lives.

Norrbotten is so isolated that in the 19th century, if the harvest was bad, people starved. The starving years were all the crueler for their unpredictability. For instance, 1800, 1812, 1821, 1836 and 1856 were years of total crop failure and extreme suffering. But in 1801, 1822, 1828, 1844 and 1863, the land spilled forth such abundance that the same people who had gone hungry in previous winters were able to gorge themselves for months.
In the 1980s, Dr. Lars Olov Bygren, a preventive-health specialist who is now at the prestigious Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, began to wonder what long-term effects the feast and famine years might have had on children growing up in Norrbotten in the 19th century–and not just on them but on their kids and grandkids as well. So he drew a random sample of 99 individuals born in the Overkalix parish of Norrbotten in 1905 and used historical records to trace their parents and grandparents back to birth. By analyzing meticulous agricultural records, Bygren and two colleagues determined how much food had been available to the parents and grandparents when they were young.
Around the time he started collecting the data, Bygren had become fascinated with research showing that conditions in the womb could affect your health not only when you were a fetus but well into adulthood. In 1986, for example, the Lancet published the first of two groundbreaking papers showing that if a pregnant woman ate poorly, her child would be at significantly higher than average risk for cardiovascular disease as an adult. Bygren wondered whether that effect could start even before pregnancy: Could parents’ experiences early in their lives somehow change the traits they passed to their offspring?
It was a heretical idea. After all, we have had a long-standing deal with biology: whatever choices we make during our lives might ruin our short-term memory or make us fat or hasten death, but they won’t change our genes–our actual DNA. Which meant that when we had kids of our own, the genetic slate would be wiped clean.
What’s more, any such effects of nurture (environment) on a species’ nature (genes) were not supposed to happen so quickly. Charles Darwin, whose On the Origin of Species celebrated its 150th anniversary in November, taught us that evolutionary changes take place over many generations and through millions of years of natural selection. But Bygren and other scientists have now amassed historical evidence suggesting that powerful environmental conditions (near death from starvation, for instance) can somehow leave an imprint on the genetic material in eggs and sperm. These genetic imprints can short-circuit evolution and pass along new traits in a single generation.
For instance, Bygren’s research showed that in Overkalix, boys who enjoyed those rare overabundant winters–kids who went from normal eating to gluttony in a single season–produced sons and grandsons who lived shorter lives. Far shorter: in the first paper Bygren wrote about Norrbotten, which was published in 2001 in the Dutch journal Acta Biotheoretica, he showed that the grandsons of Overkalix boys who had overeaten died an average of six years earlier than the grandsons of those who had endured a poor harvest. Once Bygren and his team controlled for certain socioeconomic variations, the difference in longevity jumped to an astonishing 32 years. Later papers using different Norrbotten cohorts also found significant drops in life span and discovered that they applied along the female line as well, meaning that the daughters and granddaughters of girls who had gone from normal to gluttonous diets also lived shorter lives. To put it simply, the data suggested that a single winter of overeating as a youngster could initiate a biological chain of events that would lead one’s grandchildren to die decades earlier than their peers did. How could this be possible?
Meet the Epigenome
The answer lies beyond both nature and nurture. Bygren’s data–along with those of many other scientists working separately over the past 20 years–have given birth to a new science called epigenetics. At its most basic, epigenetics is the study of changes in gene activity that do not involve alterations to the genetic code but still get passed down to at least one successive generation. These patterns of gene expression are governed by the cellular material–the epigenome–that sits on top of the genome, just outside it (hence the prefix epi-, which means above). It is these epigenetic “marks” that tell your genes to switch on or off, to speak loudly or whisper. It is through epigenetic marks that environmental factors like diet, stress and prenatal nutrition can make an imprint on genes that is passed from one generation to the next.
Epigenetics brings both good news and bad. Bad news first: there’s evidence that lifestyle choices like smoking and eating too much can change the epigenetic marks atop your DNA in ways that cause the genes for obesity to express themselves too strongly and the genes for longevity to express themselves too weakly. We all know that you can truncate your own life if you smoke or overeat, but it’s becoming clear that those same bad behaviors can also predispose your kids–before they are even conceived–to disease and early death.
The good news: scientists are learning to manipulate epigenetic marks in the lab, which means they are developing drugs that treat illness simply by silencing bad genes and jump-starting good ones. In 2004 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved an epigenetic drug for the first time. Azacitidine is used to treat patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (usually abbreviated, a bit oddly, to MDS), a group of rare and deadly blood malignancies. The drug uses epigenetic marks to dial down genes in blood precursor cells that have become overexpressed. According to Celgene Corp.–the Summit, N.J., company that makes azacitidine–people given a diagnosis of serious MDS live a median of two years on azacitidine; those taking conventional blood medications live just 15 months.
Since 2004, the FDA has approved three other epigenetic drugs that are thought to work at least in part by stimulating tumor-suppressor genes that disease has silenced. The great hope for ongoing epigenetic research is that with the flick of a biochemical switch, we could tell genes that play a role in many diseases–including cancer, schizophrenia, autism, Alzheimer’s, diabetes and many others–to lie dormant. We could, at long last, have a trump card to play against Darwin.
The funny thing is, scientists have known about epigenetic marks since at least the 1970s. But until the late ’90s, epigenetic phenomena were regarded as a sideshow to the main event, DNA. To be sure, epigenetic marks were always understood to be important: after all, a cell in your brain and a cell in your kidney contain the exact same DNA, and scientists have long known that nascent cells can differentiate only when crucial epigenetic processes turn on or turn off the right genes in utero.
More recently, however, researchers have begun to realize that epigenetics could also help explain certain scientific mysteries that traditional genetics never could: for instance, why one member of a pair of identical twins can develop bipolar disorder or asthma even though the other is fine. Or why autism strikes boys four times as often as girls. Or why extreme changes in diet over a short period in Norrbotten could lead to extreme changes in longevity. In these cases, the genes may be the same, but their patterns of expression have clearly been tweaked.
Biologists offer this analogy as an explanation: if the genome is the hardware, then the epigenome is the software. “I can load Windows, if I want, on my Mac,” says Joseph Ecker, a Salk Institute biologist and leading epigenetic scientist. “You’re going to have the same chip in there, the same genome, but different software. And the outcome is a different cell type.”
How to Make a Better Mouse
As momentous as epigenetics sounds, the chemistry of at least one of its mechanisms is fairly simple. Darwin taught us that it takes many generations for a genome to evolve, but researchers have found that it takes only the addition of a methyl group to change an epigenome. A methyl group is a basic unit in organic chemistry: one carbon atom attached to three hydrogen atoms. When a methyl group attaches to a specific spot on a gene–a process called DNA methylation–it can change the gene’s expression, turning it off or on, dampening it or making it louder.
The importance of DNA methylation in altering the physical characteristics of an organism was proposed in the 1970s, yet it wasn’t until 2003 that anyone experimented with DNA methylation quite as dramatically as Duke University oncologist Randy Jirtle and one of his postdoctoral students, Robert Waterland, did. That year, they conducted an elegant experiment on mice with a uniquely regulated agouti gene–a gene that gives mice yellow coats and a propensity for obesity and diabetes when expressed continuously. Jirtle’s team fed one group of pregnant agouti mice a diet rich in B vitamins (folic acid and vitamin B12). Another group of genetically identical pregnant agouti mice got no such prenatal nutrition.
The B vitamins acted as methyl donors: they caused methyl groups to attach more frequently to the agouti gene in utero, thereby altering its expression. And so without altering the genomic structure of mouse DNA–simply by furnishing B vitamins–Jirtle and Waterland got agouti mothers to produce healthy brown pups that were of normal weight and not prone to diabetes.
Other recent studies have also shown the power of environment over gene expression. For instance, fruit flies exposed to a drug called geldanamycin show unusual outgrowths on their eyes that can last through at least 13 generations of offspring even though no change in DNA has occurred (and generations 2 through 13 were not directly exposed to the drug). Similarly, according to a paper published last year in the Quarterly Review of Biology by Eva Jablonka (an epigenetic pioneer) and Gal Raz of Tel Aviv University, roundworms fed with a kind of bacteria can feature a small, dumpy appearance and a switched-off green fluorescent protein; the changes last at least 40 generations. (Jablonka and Raz’s paper catalogs some 100 forms of epigenetic inheritance.)
Can epigenetic changes be permanent? Possibly, but it’s important to remember that epigenetics isn’t evolution. It doesn’t change DNA. Epigenetic changes represent a biological response to an environmental stressor. That response can be inherited through many generations via epigenetic marks, but if you remove the environmental pressure, the epigenetic marks will eventually fade, and the DNA code will–over time–begin to revert to its original programming. That’s the current thinking, anyway: that only natural selection causes permanent genetic change.
And yet even if epigenetic inheritance doesn’t last forever, it can be hugely powerful. In February 2009, the Journal of Neuroscience published a paper showing that even memory–a wildly complex biological and psychological process–can be improved from one generation to the next via epigenetics. The paper described an experiment with mice led by Larry Feig, a Tufts University biochemist. Feig’s team exposed mice with genetic memory problems to an environment rich with toys, exercise and extra attention. These mice showed significant improvement in long-term potentiation (LTP), a form of neural transmission that is key to memory formation. Surprisingly, their offspring also showed LTP improvement, even when the offspring got no extra attention.
All this explains why the scientific community is so nervously excited about epigenetics. In his forthcoming book The Genius in All of Us: Why Everything You’ve Been Told About Genetics, Talent and IQ Is Wrong, science writer David Shenk says epigenetics is helping usher in a “new paradigm” that “reveals how bankrupt the phrase ‘nature versus nurture’ really is.” He calls epigenetics “perhaps the most important discovery in the science of heredity since the gene.”
Geneticists are quietly acknowledging that we may have too easily dismissed an early naturalist who anticipated modern epigenetics–and whom Darwinists have long disparaged. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) argued that evolution could occur within a generation or two. He posited that animals acquired certain traits during their lifetimes because of their environment and choices. The most famous Lamarckian example: giraffes acquired their long necks because their recent ancestors had stretched to reach high, nutrient-rich leaves.
In contrast, Darwin argued that evolution works not through the fire of effort but through cold, impartial selection. By Darwinist thinking, giraffes got their long necks over millennia because genes for long necks had, very slowly, gained advantage. Darwin, who was 84 years younger than Lamarck, was the better scientist, and he won the day. Lamarckian evolution came to be seen as a scientific blunder. Yet epigenetics is now forcing scientists to re-evaluate Lamarck’s ideas.
Solving the Overkalix Mystery
By early 2000, it seemed clear to Bygren that the feast and famine years in 19th century Norrbotten had caused some form of epigenetic change in the population. But he wasn’t sure how this worked. Then he ran across an obscure 1996 paper by Dr. Marcus Pembrey, a prominent geneticist at University College London.
Published in the Italian journal Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellologiae, Pembrey’s paper, now considered seminal in epigenetic theory, was contentious at the time; major journals had rejected it. Although he is a committed Darwinist, Pembrey used the paper–a review of available epigenetic science–to speculate beyond Darwin: What if the environmental pressures and social changes of the industrial age had become so powerful that evolution had begun to demand that our genes respond faster? What if our DNA now had to react not over many generations and millions of years but, as Pembrey wrote, within “a few, or moderate number, of generations”?
This shortened timetable would mean that genes themselves wouldn’t have had enough years to change. But, Pembrey reasoned, maybe the epigenetic marks atop DNA would have had time to change. Pembrey wasn’t sure how you would test such a grand theory, and he put the idea aside after the Acta paper appeared. But in May 2000, out of the blue, he received an e-mail from Bygren–whom he did not know–about the Overkalix life-expectancy data. The two struck up a friendship and began discussing how to construct a new experiment that would clarify the Overkalix mystery.
Pembrey and Bygren knew they needed to replicate the Overkalix findings, but of course you can’t conduct an experiment in which some kids starve and others overeat. (You also wouldn’t want to wait 60 years for the results.) By coincidence, Pembrey had access to another incredible trove of genetic information. He had long been on the board of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a unique research project based at the University of Bristol, in England. Founded by Pembrey’s friend Jean Golding, an epidemiologist at the university, ALSPAC has followed thousands of young people and their parents since before the kids were born, in 1991 and 1992. For the study, Golding and her staff recruited 14,024 pregnant mothers–70% of all the women in the Bristol area who were pregnant during the 20-month recruitment period.
The ALSPAC parents and kids have undergone extensive medical and psychological testing every year since. Recently, I met an ALSPAC baby, Tom Gibbs, who is now a sturdy 17-year-old. I accompanied him as clinicians measured his height (178 cm, or 5 ft. 8 in., not including spiked blond hair), the bone density of his left femur (1.3 g/sq cm, which is above average) and a host of other physical traits.
All this data collection was designed from the outset to show how the individual’s genotype combines with environmental pressures to influence health and development. ALSPAC data have offered several important insights: baby lotions containing peanut oil may be partly responsible for the rise in peanut allergies; high maternal anxiety during pregnancy is associated with the child’s later development of asthma; little kids who are kept too clean are at higher risk for eczema.
But Pembrey, Bygren and Golding–now all working together–used the data to produce a more groundbreaking paper, the most compelling epigenetic study yet written. Published in 2006 in the European Journal of Human Genetics, it noted that of the 14,024 fathers in the study, 166 said they had started smoking before age 11–just as their bodies were preparing to enter puberty. Boys are genetically isolated before puberty because they cannot form sperm. (Girls, by contrast, have their eggs from birth.) That makes the period around puberty fertile ground for epigenetic changes: If the environment is going to imprint epigenetic marks on genes in the Y chromosome, what better time to do it than when sperm is first starting to form?
When Pembrey, Bygren and Golding looked at the sons of those 166 early smokers, it turned out that the boys had significantly higher body mass indexes than other boys by age 9. That means the sons of men who smoke in prepuberty will be at higher risk for obesity and other health problems well into adulthood. It’s very likely these boys will also have shorter life spans, just as the children of the Overkalix overeaters did. “The coherence between the ALSPAC and Overkalix results in terms of the exposure-sensitive periods and sex specificity supports the hypothesis that there is a general mechanism for transmitting information about the ancestral environment down the male line,” Pembrey, Bygren, Golding and their colleagues concluded in the European Journal of Human Genetics paper. In other words, you can change your epigenetics even when you make a dumb decision at 10 years old. If you start smoking then, you may have made not only a medical mistake but a catastrophic genetic mistake.
Exploring Epigenetic Potential
How can we harness the power of epigenetics for good? In 2008 the National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced it would pour $190 million into a multilab, nationwide initiative to understand “how and when epigenetic processes control genes.” Dr. Elias Zerhouni, who directed the NIH when it awarded the grant, said at the time–in a phrase slightly too dry for its import–that epigenetics had become “a central issue in biology.”
This past October, the NIH grant started to pay off. Scientists working jointly at a fledgling, largely Internet-based effort called the San Diego Epigenome Center announced with colleagues from the Salk Institute–the massive La Jolla, Calif., think tank founded by the man who discovered the polio vaccine–that they had produced “the first detailed map of the human epigenome.”
The claim was a bit grandiose. In fact, the scientists had mapped only a certain portion of the epigenomes of two cell types (an embryonic stem cell and another basic cell called a fibroblast). There are at least 210 cell types in the human body–and possibly far more, according to Ecker, the Salk biologist, who worked on the epigenome maps. Each of the 210 cell types is likely to have a different epigenome. That’s why Ecker calls the $190 million grant from NIH “peanuts” compared with the probable end cost of figuring out what all the epigenetic marks are and how they work in concert.
Remember the Human Genome Project? Completed in March 2000, the project found that the human genome contains something like 25,000 genes; it took $3 billion to map them all. The human epigenome contains an as yet unknowable number of patterns of epigenetic marks, a number so big that Ecker won’t even speculate on it. The number is certainly in the millions. A full epigenome map will require major advances in computing power. When completed, the Human Epigenome Project (already under way in Europe) will make the Human Genome Project look like homework that 15th century kids did with an abacus.
But the potential is staggering. For decades, we have stumbled around massive Darwinian roadblocks. DNA, we thought, was an ironclad code that we and our children and their children had to live by. Now we can imagine a world in which we can tinker with DNA, bend it to our will. It will take geneticists and ethicists many years to work out all the implications, but be assured: the age of epigenetics has arrived.



Epigenetic information allows for communication through vibration and resonance.
YEAR 2017
DATE Friday March 03, 
TOPIC Epigenetics
AUTHOR Dr. Carlos Orozco (BSc, MSc, ND, MD, PhD, FPAMS)

Epigenetic information allows for communication through vibration and resonance
Communication is a signaling system generated in the realm of epigenetics that allows for the interchange of energy into matter and vice versa via bio-photons1,2. This important information is not reflected by DNA itself. Its impact on our wellbeing occurs in what has been labeled epigenetics, which accounts for up to 98%of the non-nuclear-coding DNA otherwise known as junk DNA where the micro cellular environment, that is independent of the DNA, receives environmental signals i.e. information, through proteins called histones and chromatin3. Genetic determination (DNA) and gene expression are driven by 2% of the human genome. The DNA is packed into pockets of information called genes. Every gene has a specific place within the autosomes and chromosomes called locus for one gene, loci for several genes. So, we can safely say that our genes 26 do not control our Biology, it is all about the environmental signals that affect the body’s epigenetics4 via non-coding DNA.

Epigenetics is the study of gene expression under the influence of informational signals emanating from the micro and the macro environment, where the phenotype changes and the genotype remain the same due to methylations of the histones and chromatin.
Back in 2000, The Human Genome project was completed and it was finalized in 2003 and shared with scientists throughout the world. The revelations and discoveries highlighted that only 25,000 genes made up the entire human genome; even though the scientists involved expected that the numbers would be in the hundreds of thousands. The discoveries pondered the question: ‘Why do humans’ have over 100,000 structural and globular proteins making up the human body and yet there are only 25,000 genes in code for them?’ The only answer was that something else was in control of the phenotypes and not just the genome – epigenetics.
The theory of modern day epigenetics was proposed by American biologist Prof. C David Allis. Epigenetics works by means of expressing the phenotype without the interference of the genotype. The biochemical mechanisms’ that have been elucidated to explain how non-coding DNA is able to express and silence genes are:
1. RNAi – siRNA’s silence gene expression in a sequence-specific manner by hybridizing to complementary regions within mRNAs.
2. Chromatin Remodeling– Acetylation and deacetylation of histones is the simplest type of chromatin remodeling.
3. DNA Methylation– Biological process binding methyl groups to the gene’s promoter region. Recognized as the prominent epigenetic mechanism involved in silencing gene expression.l

Epigenetics, as the science is named, was first postulated as ‘Lamarckism’ by Jaen-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) who was an early evolutionist. He proposed that life forms could acquire ‘information’ from their environment and pass it on in their genes. Years later Erwin Schrödinger (1887-1961) applied the theoretical model of quantum physics into the field of molecular biology and set the basis for what we now know as epigenetics. Erwin Schrödinger believed that there existed a kind of a ‘code-script’ in the gene, as well as the persistence of genetic hereditary characters. At the time DNA was thought of as thought of as information somehow encodes the protein, that gave it the ability to self-organize. This interdisciplinary innovation opened a new door to molecular biology and directly triggered the discovery of DNA double helix structure afterward. At this point, it was believed that Schrödinger was referring to the ability of genes to produce specific proteins, when it is more likely he was referring to the organization of these proteins into biological complexity through external influences, bringing Lamarckism into the equation. Biology was then thought to be unable, to be further studied in the microcosmic world, under a microscope. Erwin Schrödinger imagined the tiniest structure of an organism to be an atom and commenced the theoretical physics and ideas of quantum mechanics and quantum fields.
After Erwin Schrödinger, the Research Director Prof.Rupert Sheldrake who worked at the Biochemistry and Cytobiology Lab of Clare College at the University of Cambridge developed and proposed the Sheldrake Theory Sheldrake’s “Morphic Resonance Hypothesis”. He proposed Morphic fields and resonance as the organizing fields of nature and matter. The Morphic fields interact with each other 18

through the process of what we can call Morphic Resonance. Fields are invisible structures in space, Michael Faraday proposed in the 1840’s that fields were made of subtle matter such as the Ether.
In the mid-1860’s James Maxwell, showed that light was electromagnetic vibration in the electromagnetic field. This became the basis of electrical technology. In 1905 Albert Einstein as he developed his theory of relativity, he got rid of the concept of the ether and said that fields are just fields. They are made of energy and thus they are fundamental in nature. M atter is made of fields but fields are not made of matter. In 1927 Einstein showed through his theory of relativity that the universal gravitational field is a field that holds the entire universe together.
In quantum theory, we now talk about Quantum Fields such as the quantum energy field and the biological information field.In recent times, leading stem cell biologist and expert on epigenetics, DrBruce Lipton, has taken a scientific understanding of the role of the environment (micro and macro) in gene expression to new levels. He produced breakthrough studies on the cell membrane, which revealed that this outer layer of the cell was an organic homolog of a computer chip, the cell’s equivalent of a brain. His research at Stanford University’s School of Medicine, between 1987 and 1992, revealed that the environment, operating though the membrane, controlled the behavior and physiology of the cell, turning genes on and off. His discoveries, which ran counter to the established scientific view that life is controlled by the genes, was the forerunner of one of today’s most important fields of study, the science of epigenetics.
Epigenetics is the study of the changes in the gene expression that are not due to an alteration of the DNA sequence which is heritable. It was Conrad Hal Waddington who coined the term Epigenetics for the first time in 1942. Epigenetics (from the Greek “epi” in or on, and “Genetics” the study of the genotype and phenotype characteristics that are transmitted from generation to generation through information packages called genes) plays a very important role in modern genetics, as it considers the genetic expression based on the signals that the epigenome receives from the environment and lifestyle of the individual. These genetic factors are determined by the cellular environment rather than by heritage. They intervene in the setting of the ontogeny or development of an organism, from the fertilization of the zygote in sexual reproduction until senescence, through going the adult stage. It also intervenes in the heritable regulation of the gene expression without any change in the nucleotide sequence, that is to say, the genotype. This allows saying that the genotype is constant and therefore does not change. However, the phenotype can be modified by the decoding of the signals from both the macro and micro cosmos. Therefore, it can be said that epigenetic is the set of chemical reactions, basically methylations and acetylations19 besides the decoding and translation of environmental signals that modify the activity of DNA without altering the genotype, but modifying the phenotype20. In short, the epigenetic changes do not alter the genes but they do alter their expression.
After the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2003, scientists from the 18 countries involved in it, discovered that the human genome is only composed of 25,000 genes. They expected to discover much more since they knew that the so-called genetic dogma encoded for the amino acid series which constitutes the tens of thousands of proteins of the human body, especially considering that about 50% of the dry weight of the cells and the human body are made of proteins21. They also realized that there is much more on the molecular basis of the cell function, the development, the aging and many diseases. The idea that scientists had just a few years ago that human beings and other organisms are fundamentally what is written in their genes since conception is changing rapidly and science is making 19

huge improvements achieving to decipher the language that encodes minor chemical changes capable of regulating the expression of many genes that depend purely on the influence of the signals from the micro- and macrocosms of the epigenome22, that means, in the purely phenotypic expression.
Epigenetic regulation can occur by changes in chromatin conformation according to its interaction with histones. This is a key level of regulation as the state in which chromatin is found, determines the time, place and manner in which a gene can be expressed or not. If chromatin is in a high condensation degree, transcription elements cannot access that DNA region and therefore, the gene is not transcribed; i.e., the gene is AMPUTATED or otherwise silenced. In contrast, if chromatin is not condensed, i.e., it is optional, the transcriptional activators can bind to the promoter regions in order the gene transcription occurs. This is one of the ways genome regulation occurs. It has been determined that there are three epigenetic regulation processes: DNA methylation, histone modification and finally the effect of small noncoding RNAs as illustrated in Fig. 3.
Until today we have been able to discern epigenetic mechanisms in a variety of physiological and pathological processes including, for example, various cancers, cardiovascular, neurological, reproductive and immune diseases.
Methylation (Fig.4) is the addition of a methyl group (-CH3) to a molecule. In development biology, methylation is the main epigenetic mechanism. Here, methylation consists in the transfer of methyl groups to some of the cytosine bases (C) of the DNA located prior and contiguously to a guanine (G). Since methylation is essential in the regulation of gene silencing, it may cause alterations in the gene transcription without causing an alteration in the DNA sequence, being one of the mechanisms responsible for the phenotypic plasticity15.

Chromatin is the set of DNA, histones, non-histone proteins and RNA found in the interphase nucleus of eukaryotic cells and constitutes the genome of those cells.
The main objective of the epigenome is to harmonize and rebalance the different vehicles of expression to achieve good health from a holistic point of view, remembering that not only environment and food will impact health, but also stress, thoughts and negative emotions, as well as the influence of the same microbiome. That expression nutritionist use “we are what we eat” should be replaced by “we are what we assimilate” because it is precisely the nutrients which, through methylation, 20

acetylation and deacetylations can modify chromatin, determining the activity of the histones at the level of their amino acids, lysine, and arginine, allowing the gene expression22.
Human beings have the opportunity to choose their destiny without any unalterable genetic determinism. This is thank to epigenetics and to the quantum energy field that receives information through signals from the micro and macro cosmos through entanglement. This allows all to be one and one to be all. Our life experience is passed from generation to generation through the epigenome. But they are the proteins that control the reading and decoding of genes23.
In quantum physics, we speak about harmonic resonance referring to the vibration between two or more waves that share the same frequency as well as the same amplitude and which is distributed in nature. In the energy quantum field, we emit thoughts and emotions which are expressed in vibrations that are mixed or entangled with other people and our thoughts recognize other vibrational frequencies that are issued by other entities and this gives a harmonious environment; however, if we emit negative thoughts in everything that surrounds us (epigenetic behavior), we create chaos and disharmony or lack of consistency among the vibratory thoughts24, 25.
So, through the epigenome, memories are passed from generation to generation, that is, what our ancestors ate, absorbed, and thought, is expressed in our epigenome as environmental signals induce its manifestation. And therefore, to nourish ourselves healthily according to our epigenetic is now a reality 26.